The Etymology Of god
O.E. god "supreme being, deity; the Christian God; image of a god; godlike person," from P.Gmc. *guthan (cf. O.S., O.Fris., Du. god, O.H.G. got, Ger.Gott, O.N. guð, Goth. guþ), from PIE *ghut- "that which is invoked" (cf. O.C.S. zovo "to call," Skt. huta- "invoked," an epithet of Indra), from root*gheu(e)- "to call, invoke." But some trace it to PIE *ghu-to- "poured," from root *gheu- "to pour, pour a libation" (source of Gk. khein "to pour," also in the phrase khute gaia "poured earth," referring to a burial mound; see found (2)). "Given the Greek facts, the Germanic form may have referred in the first instance to the spirit immanent in a burial mound" [Watkins]. Cf. also Zeus.
In the ancient Greek religion, Zeus Ancient Greek: Modern Greek: Zeus the "Father of Gods and men" who ruled the Olympians of Mount Olympusas a father ruled the family. He is the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology. His Roman counterpart is Jupiter and his Etruscan counterpart is Tinia.
Not related to good. Originally a neuter noun in Germanic, the gender shifted to masculine after the coming of Christianity. O.E. god was probably closer in sense to L. numen. A better word to translate deus might have been P.Gmc. *ansuz, but this was used only of the highest deities in the Germanic religion, and not of foreign gods, and it was never used of the Christian God. It survives in English mainly in the personal names beginning in Os-.
I want my lawyer, my tailor, my servants, even my wife to believe in God, because it means that I shall be cheated and robbed and cuckolded less often. ... If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him. [Voltaire]
God bless you after someone sneezes is credited to St. Gregory the Great, but the pagan Romans (Absit omen) and Greeks had similar customs.
1835, from God + fearing (see fear).
"terrible," 1878, from God + awful.
"child one sponsors at baptism," c.1200, from God + child.
late 14c., from god + damn.
Mais, fussent-ils [les anglais] cent mille Goddem de plus qu'a present, ils n'auront pas ce royaume. [Joan of Arc, 1431, quoted in Prosper de Barante's "Histoire des ducs de Bourgogne"]
Goddammes was the nickname given by Puritans to Cavaliers, in consequence of the latter's supposed frequent employment of that oath.
girl one sponsors at her baptism, mid-13c., from god + daughter.
mid-14c., from god + fem. suffix -esse (see -ess). Of mortal women, by 1570s.
man who sponsors one at baptism, late 12c., from god + father. In the Mafia sense, from 1963. Popularized by Mario Puzo’s novel (1969) and the movie based on it (1972).
1856, from God + forsaken.
masc. proper name, from O.Fr. Godefrei (Mod.Fr. Godefroi), from O.H.G. Godafrid (Ger. Gottfried), lit. "the peace of God," from O.H.G. got "God" (see god) + fridu "peace" (see free). In early 20c., the name sometimes was used as a slang euphemism for "God"
c.1200, from god + M.E. -hede, cognate with -hood and Ger. -heit. Along with maidenhead, this is the sole survival of this form of the suffix. O.E. had godhad "divine nature."
d.1067, Lady of Coventry and wife of Leofric, Earl of Mercia. Legend first recorded 100 years after her death, by Roger of Wendover. "Peeping Tom" aspect added by 1659
1520s, from god + -less. Related: Godlessness. Phrase godless communism attested by 1851.
1510s, from god + -like.
1530s, from godly + -ness.
late 14c., from god + -ly
woman who sponsors one at baptism, late 13c., from god + mother O.E. godmodor.
1814, "a shipwreck" (from the perspective of people living along the coast), from M.E. Godes sonde (c.1200) "God's messenger; what God sends, gift from God, happening caused by God," from god + M.E. sonde "that which is sent, message," from O.E. sand, from sendan (see send). Sense of "happy chance" is from 1831.
"male child one sponsors at baptism," c.1200, from God + child
also God speed, early 14c., "quickly, speedily" (late 13c. as a surname), from god + speed. As a parting salutation, from mid-15c
1520s, from demi- + god, rendering L. semideus. The child of sexual intercourse between a deity and a mortal, a man raised to divine rank, or a minor god.
1580s, from Port. pagode (early 16c.), from a corruption of Pers. butkada, from but "idol" + kada "dwelling." Or perhaps from or influenced by Tamilpagavadi "house belonging to a deity," from Skt. bhagavati "goddess," fem. of bhagavat "blessed, adorable," from *bhagah "good fortune," from PIE base *bhag- "to share out, apportion" (cf. Gk. phagein "to eat;" see -phagous).
1520s, "irreligious, not god-fearing, not in accordance with the laws of God," from un- (1) "not" + pp. of godly (adj.). Cf. M.Du. ongodelijc, Ger.ungöttlich, M.Swed. ogudhlik. Colloquial sense of "outrageous, dreadful" is recorded from 1887.
The earliest written form of the Germanic (having characteristics that are somewhat German) word god comes from the 6th century Christian Codex Argenteus (The "Silver Bible" Ulfilas translated the Christian bible into Gothic). The English word itself is derived from the Proto-Germanic (The Proto-Germanic language is not directly attested by any surviving texts but has been reconstructed using the comparative method) * gu?an. Most linguists agree that the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form *?hu-tó-m was based on the root *?hau(?)-, which meant either "to call" or "to invoke". The Germanic words for god were originally neuter (belonging to, connected with, or constituting the gender that ordinarily includes most words or grammatical forms referring characteristically to things that are neither masculine nor feminine)—applying to both genders—but during the process of the Christianization of the Germanic peoples from their indigenous Germanic paganism, the word became a masculine syntactic form (For a system of noun classes to be a gender system, every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few that belong to several classes at once).
The capitalized form God was first used in *Ulfilas's (Wulfila) Gothic translation of the New Testament, to represent the Greek *Theos. In the English language, the capitalization continues to represent a distinction between monotheistic ( the doctrine or belief that there is but one God ) "God" and "gods" in polytheism (the belief of multiple deities). In spite of significant differences between religions such as Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, the Bahá'í Faith, and Judaism, the term "God" remains an English translation common to all. The name may signify any related or similar monotheistic deities, such as the early monotheism of Akhenaten (Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt) and Zoroastrianism (a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster).
When used in English within a community with a common monotheistic background, "God" always refers to the deity they share. Those with a background in different Abrahamic religions will usually agree on the deity they share, while still differing on details of belief and doctrine—they will disagree about attributes of [the] God, rather than thinking in terms of "my God" and "your (different) God".
*Ulfilas's (Wulfila) Gothic translation (310 – 383 BCE): Ulfilas was ordained a bishop by Eusebius of Nicomedia (the man who baptised Constantine. He was a bishop of Berytus (modern-day Beirut) and returned to his people to work as a missionary. In 348, to escape religious persecution by a Gothic chief. Ulfilas translated the Bible from Greek into the Gothic language.
Theos: (Etymology of the word) The word "deity" derives from the Latin "dea", ("goddess"), and "deus", ("god"), and other Indo-European roots such as from the Sanskrit "deva", ("god"), "devi", ("goddess"), "divya", ("transcendental", "spiritual"). Related are words for "sky": the Latin "dies" ("day") and "divum" ("open sky"), and the Sanskrit "div," "diu" ("sky," "day," "shine"). Also related are "divine" and "divinity," from the Latin "divinus," from "divus." Khoda (Persian: ??? ) translates to God from Persian.
Sanskrit Language: The Sanskrit Language is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language (a language that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life) of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.
Hinduism is the predominant religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as San?tana Dharma (a Sanskrit phrase meaning "the eternal law", "the eternal law that sustains/upholds/surely preserves", amongst many other expressions. Generic "types" of Hinduism that attempt to accommodate a variety of complex views span folk and Vedic Hinduism to bhakti tradition, as in Vaishnavism. Among other practices and philosophies, Hinduism includes a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on the notion of karma, dharma, and societal norms such as Hindu marriage customs. Hinduism grants a great degree of freedom of belief and worship. Also, concept of heresy is absent.
Hinduism is formed of diverse traditions and has no single founder. Among its roots is the historical Vedic religion of Iron Age India and, as such, Hinduism is often called the "oldest living religion" or the "oldest living major religion" in the world
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state of supreme being is called Jina (Conqueror or Victor). Jainism is also referred to as Shraman (self-reliant) Dharma or the religion of Nirgrantha (lit. those without ties) by ancient texts. Jainism is commonly referred to as Jain Dharma in Hindi and Samanam in Tamil.
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha (P?li/Sanskrit "the awakened one"). The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. He is recognized by Buddhists as an awakened or enlightened teacher who shared his insights to help sentient beings end suffering (or dukkha), achieve nirvana, and escape what is seen as a cycle of suffering and rebirth.